Related parties as defined in IAS 24 (Related Party Disclosures) are those legal entities and natural persons that are able to exert influence on Bayer AG and its subsidiaries or over which Bayer AG or its subsidiaries exercise control or have a significant influence. They include, in particular, nonconsolidated subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates included in the consolidated financial statements at cost of acquisition or using the equity method, post-employment benefit plans and the corporate officers of Bayer AG.
Sales to related parties were not material from the viewpoint of the Bayer Group. Goods and services to the value of €0.4 billion were procured from the associated company PO JV, LP, Wilmington, Delaware, United States, mainly in the course of normal business operations. There was no significant change in receivables vis-à-vis related parties compared with December 31, 2015. Payables increased by €0.2 billion to €0.3 billion, primarily vis-à-vis Casebia Therapeutics Limited Liability Partnership, Ascot, United Kingdom, the newly established joint venture with CRISPR Therapeutics AG, Basel, Switzerland.